* All work areas, including passageways, storerooms, and service-rooms should be kept neat, clean, sanitary, and dry. Spills must be cleaned up safely and promptly.
* The floors should be free of scraps, garbage, debris, oil or coolant spills, chips, and other waste. Likewise, floors, passageways, and working areas should be kept free of loose boards, nails, splinters and other protrusions.
Machinery and excess equipment or storage shouldn't hazardously crowd the floor space.
* There should be nonslip surfaces or mats on the walking and work areas in wet spaces.
* Permanent aisles must be recognizable, and clear of obstruction.
* A fixed ladder should be able to hold a 200 pound load. There are OSHA specifications for the size and type of rungs that are acceptable for ladders. Ladders should be free of splinters and burrs. Wood ladders should be made with preserved wood where needed, since paint alone doesn't adequately preserve wood.
* The preferred angle for descent is 75 - 90 degrees. Vertical ladders require cages or safety devices if they are longer than 20 feet.
* All portable ladders should be maintained in good condition, and inspected frequently. Dangerous ladders should be repaired or discarded. Metal ladders should not be used near energized electrical equipment. Ladders should be placed on secure nonslip surfaces or footing. All ladders should meet OSHA standards, and purchase orders should include this requirement.
* A standard guardrail is required at every open-sided platform, catwalk, or runway that is 4 or more feet above the floor. Stairways floor openings require standard guardrails on all sides except at the stair entrance. There are precise requirements for the construction of the standard guardrail.
* Scaffolds should be able to support at least four times the maximum intended load, while wire or rope should be able to support at least six times the intended load. The scaffold should solid enough to hold the intended load without settling or shifting. Unstable objects such as bricks, blocks, or boxes should not be used to support scaffolds or planks.
* Guardrails and toeboards must be used on all sides of scaffolds that are more than 10 feet above the ground. If the scaffold is less than 45 inches
wide, then guardrails are required for scaffolds from 4 to 10 feet high. Planks must be secure from movement or be overlapped a minimum of 12 inches.
* All scaffolds must be maintained and inspected. Dangerous scaffolds should be removed.
* The height of rolling scaffolds should not exceed four times the size of the base. There must be proper cross and horizontal bracing. At least two out of four casters or wheels must be swivel type on rolling scaffolds, and they should all have locking capability. People should not be allowed to ride on manually propelled scaffolds.
* There must be an exit route that leads to a public way. The area surrounding the exit and exit route should be clear of any obstruction or debris. This exit route should not pass through high hazard areas unless there is suitable shielding or barriers.
* Doors leading to exit routes should be side-hinged and swinging. If the room to be exited holds more than 50 people, or is an area of high hazard potential, then the door must swing in the outward (from the room) direction. No locks or fasteners should prevent escape from the inside of the building.
* If the exits aren't accessible at all times, then there must be two available exit paths that lead directly to the exit.
* "EXIT", written in clear, plain, legible letters must mark each egress.
This signs should not be obscured by any decoration, furnishings or other signs. Doors, passageways or stairways only resembling exits must be marked
"NOT AN EXIT", or if applicable "STORAGE ROOM" or "TO BASEMENT" thus clarifying their usage.
* Directional arrows must delineate egress pathways when actual exit signs are not visible. It there is any occupancy at night, or there is reduced lighting during the day, exit signs must be lit with a reliable light source.
According to the National Safety Council, nearly one in four disabling injuries is directly related to materials handling activities. Accidents include slips, and falls, back injuries and hernias, chemical and heat injury, as well as hand and foot injury.
The following are recommendations for manual handling of materials:
* People lifting heavy objects should be trained in safe lifting techniques.
* If the object is large, have someone else guide the move. For two person lifting, make sure the individuals are as similar in height and strength as possible to ensure an equal balance of weight.
* Use protective equipment if necessary. For example use heat resistant gloves for hot objects, and heavy work gloves for rough lumber to protect from splinters.
* Hazards of different types of fork trucks often depend on the type of fuel used. Only those trained and authorized in the safe operation of fork trucks should be allowed to operate them. Unattended trucks should be parked in neutral, with forks lowered completely.
* Trucks should be inspected before service each day.
* Trucks must have an overhead to protect against falling objects.
* The view from the cabin should always be free. Loads that obstruct clear view must be hauled from behind.
* All loading boards and accessories must be securable.
* "No Smoking" signs are required with the use of battery powered operations.
* See 23 CFR 1910.178 for more detailed regulations.
* Safe storage is characterized by the maintenance of a neat and orderly area for both temporary and permanent storage. Stored materials must not block any safety equipment (i.e. fire extinguishers, alarm boxes, sprinkler system controls, electric switches, lights or first aid supplies). Clearance must be maintained for exit routes, aisles, loading pathways, and doors.
* Proper drainage must be provided if necessary.
* Storage of hazardous chemicals and of flammable and combustible materials must be in accordance with OSHA regulations.
* OSHA specifies floorload capacity, labeling of floorboard capacity, door size, aisle width, stack clearance, loading facility and dock dimensions (29 CFR 1910.22).
* Floors and stairways should be kept free of debris, spill or fire hazards.
* All drums should remain sealed. Leaking drums should be removed.
* Store objects securely. For example, cylinders that are stored horizontally
should be nested and blocked.
* Lack of adequate storage space often leads to unsafe conditions. Each classroom, workshop, studio, or lab should have adequate space for storage of materials used.
* Tool cribs, tool panels, wall cabinets, bench drawers, and tool racks should be constructed in such a way that there is protection from injury from tools falling from overhead and cuts arising from improperly stored sharp tools.
Accidents involving machines, particularly woodworking machines, cause a high percentage of injuries in art departments. The following are some basic safety rules for machine and tool safety:
* Everyone using tools and machines should be properly trained in their use according to manufacturing specifications, and general safe and cautious behavior in the woodshop.
* Everyone should wear safety goggles or safety glasses. A face shield may be worn over these but a face shield by itself does not adequately protect the eyes. Eye glasses are not sufficient protection.
* NIOSH-approved toxic dust masks should be available and used when necessary.
* Loose clothing, work gloves, neckties and dangling jewelry should not be worn around powered tools or machines.
* The work area should always be kept clean, swept, and well-lit. Floors should be free of all debris, slippery materials, or water.
* Never leave any machine that is running unattended. Turn off the power, and wait until the machine isn't moving before leaving the work area.
* When energized machines and equipment are being serviced or maintained, OSHA
requires a program to ensure the machines are equipped with lockout devices or tagout devices if guards are removed or bypassed, or other safety hazards could exist during the servicing (29 CFR 1910.147).
Hazards to those working with machinery exist whenever machine parts rotate, reciprocate, move in transverse, Cut, punch, nip, shear or bend. Machinery action can occur at the site of the work-piece and elsewhere. OSHA requires machine guards on all machines with these safety hazards to protect the operator and other employees (29 CFR 1910.211, 1910.213, 1910.215 - .219)
Common methods of guarding against machine hazards include:
* enclosing the operation;
* interlocking devices;
* moving barriers;
* removal devices;
* remote control;
* two-hand tripping devices; and
* electronic safety devices.
Fixed enclosures: Fixed enclosure is the preferred method of machine guarding. Access to dangerous parts is impossible. Flying machine parts would be restrained. Sometimes they are adjustable to different types of machine parts. In this case, they should also be fixable.
Interlocking guards: Interlocking guards provide the second best method of machine guarding. An interlocking enclosure is removable. A mechanical or electric interlocking connection prevents dangerous contact between machine and operator.
Specifically, an interlocking enclosure guard should:
* disengage power preventing start-up of machine when the guard is open.
* guard the danger point before the start of operation.
* maintain the closed guard until the machine is at rest, and likewise stop power during a work cycle if the guard is opened.
Examples of interlocking guards include barrier bars or wires, or electric eye-beams, or magnetic circuitry that activates a braking mechanism.
Automatic guards: Automatic guards are the third best choice. One type of automatic guard operates while the machine is active, and protects by removing the operator's hand or body from the danger zone. Common examples are sweep and pushaway devices.
Remote control placement, feeding and ejecting can protect the operator from contact at the dangerous point in machine operation. Two-handed devices can activate the machine. Hand controls can also be linked with foot controls. The start-up controls should be positioned so that the operator cannot reach the dangerous point of the machine, unless he or she de-activates the machine by releasing the switch.
Woodworking machines requires special consideration because of they are a major cause of accidents in arts programs. This is covered by OSHA under 29 CFR 1910.213.
* Machines should be secured. Belts, pulleys, chains, sprockets and gears must be guarded. V-belts and chain drives must be completely enclosed; if belts, shafting, couplings, keys, collars and clutches are located seven or less feet above the ground, these must be guarded from contact.
* Machine guards should be securely attached to machines, and conform to existing standards, or be specifically designed for the particular machine.
(See discussion on machine guards below.)
* Every machine needs an accessible stop switch.
* Machines should have a master switch. It should be possible to lock the machine in the "off" position.
* Cutting blades must be maintained and sharp.
* Scraps and waste should be kept clear of the working surface of the machine.
* All woodworking machines that generate considerable quantities of wood dust should be equipped with dust collectors that exhaust to the outside. Portable dust collectors are available that can be connected to several machines at once.
* Hearing protection may be necessary since noise levels from machinery can be
very high. A good rule of thumb is that hearing protection is called for when there is difficulty hearing someone one to two feet away.
Powered Hand Tools
* Source: 29 CFR 1910.241 - .243.
* All electric cords must be in good condition, and inspected and maintained.
Special precautions must be taken if the work is damp, or contains flammables or combustibles.
* All guards, shields, and attachments should be in place and functioning.
* Hand held electrical power tools must have a quick-release (dead-man) control that shuts off power when control switch is released.
* The frame of electrical tools must be grounded or double-insulated, and thus labeled.
* Pneumatic tools must be securely fastened to the hose.
Additionally, there must be a tool retainer that restrains the attachment.
* All hand tools must be maintained in good condition, and replaced if damaged.
* Tools should be stored safely and neatly. There should be procedures for the control of tools.
* Tools should only be used for their intended purpose.
For further information on the hazards and precautions for woodworking machines, powered hand tools and hand tools, see the data sheets prepared by the Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). These are available from the Center for Safety in the Arts.
OSHA uses the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70-1971, and ANSI C1-1971) for its standard on electrical safety (29 CFR 1910.301 - 1910.308).
Electrical fires are the number one cause of fire.
Basic requirements for electrical safety include:
* In every situation, permanent wires should be used. Extension cords, cube taps, and multiple jacks shouldn't be used. If needed, more outlets should be installed.
* Flexible cords should be inspected, maintained, and replaced if there are
any signs of damage, fraying or deterioration. Cords should never be used as a substitute for fixed wiring. There should not be pull on joints or terminal screws of cords.
* It is forbidden to run flexible cords through holes in windows, doors, ceilings, floors, or walls. Cords may not be attached to building surfaces.
* Splices and repairs on flexible cord must be done by welding, brazing or soldering, or splicing devices. Do not tape wires. Both splices and free ends of conductors must be insulated.
* Circuit breakers and fuse boxes must either be recognizable or labeled.
Outlets, switches, and junction boxes must be covered. All electrical boxes should be secured to the wall.
* The circuit breaker panel or fuse box should be easily accessible. Each switch should be labeled as to its function. Ground fault interrupters, which shut off the electrical current in the case of shorts should be installed.
* Electrical motor frames must be grounded. If there is any chance of
operation in a wet or damp location, electrical contact with metal, voltage reached greater than 150, or operation in a hazardous location, then all exposed metal parts must be grounded, even if noncurrent-carrying. Likewise, noncurrent metal parts of appliances and hand-held motor operated tools must be grounded and labeled. Use only grounded plugs in wet areas.
* Ground fault circuit interrupters, which shut off the electrical current in case of shorts, should be installed whenever machinery or electrical outlets are within 10 feet of the chance of contact with water.
* 220-volt and 110-volt wiring should be separate and identifiable. Don't use compatible plugs.
* Don't let sawdust or other debris build up around motors since the debris may ignite if the motor overheats.
* National Electrical Code requirements for electrical wiring and equipment near flammable and combustible liquids was discussed in Chapter 8.
1. Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety. Infograms:
Hand Tools (16 pp)
Powered Hand Tools (17 pp)
Woodworking (10 pp)
( These are a series of one-page data sheets on various topics that are useful
training tools.) *
2. Division of Training and Manpower Development. (1981). Safety and Health
for Industrial/Vocational Education for Supervisors and Instructors. DHHS
(NIOSH) and DOL (OSHA), Cincinnati, OH.
3. National Fire Protection Association. (1987). NFPA 70-1987. National
Electrical Code. NFPA, Quincy, MA.
4. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (1979). Occupational
Safety and Health in Vocational Education, DHHS (NIOSH), Cincinnati, OH.
5. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (1989). Occupational Safety
and Health Standards For General Industry, 29 CFR Part 1910. OSHA, U.S.